Earth Science # Environment

Soil Erosion and Conservation in India

Soil erosion in India Excessive soil erosion in India combined with consequent high rate of sedimentation in reservoirs and decreased soil fertility has led to grave environmental problems. Soil erosion mostly affects practically all kinds of lands such as the forest lands, agricultural lands, arid and semi-arid lands, surface mines, roads, construction sites, coastal areas etc. Further, since soil formation is a very slow process, the erosion of the upper layer of the soil leaves it barren for a long...

Environment

NASA Finding throws light on Rising Global Methane Emissions

Global methane emissions have been markedly increasing in recent years, with a large contributor being emissions from the global oil and gas industry. It is estimated that methane emissions globally have been increasing by a massive 25 teragrams per year since 2007. However, a problem was posed in breaking down this number between emissions from the oil and gas industry and other sources such as that released by microbes. This led to much uncertainty in the scientific community over the reasons for this...

Climate Change # Environment

How earth’s albedo effects global warming: can geoengineering help?

Definition Albedo is the measure of reflectivity of an object. A scientific definition describes albedo as “the fraction of the total incident solar radiation reflected by a planet back to space that is a measure of the planet's energy balance”. Every object has a different albedo. The objects with higher albedo are cooler in temperature than the objects that have a lower albedo.  It is either measured on a scale of zero to one or as a percentage. An object that has zero albedo reflects zero...

Environment

Climate Change in the Southern Ocean

Although Antarctica is better protected by international legislations, the Arctic usually commands most of the attention among climate watchers, especially in the case of the melting of sea ice and its subsequent impacts. However, like the Arctic Ocean, Climate Change in the Southern Ocean also deserves the attention of climate watchers. The Importance of the Southern Ocean Climate Change in the Southern Ocean is incredibly relevant, given that greater than 60 per cent of the Earth’s anthropogenic...

Environment

Climate Change in the Svalbard Archipelago in Norway

The Arctic region is experiencing the effects on Climate Change more than most regions on Earth and as such, Climate Change in Svalbard, which lies in the Arctic region deserves special attention. The Svalbard archipelago is located in the Arctic Ocean, about halfway between Norway and the North Pole, and is under the jurisdiction of the Norwegian Government. Fig: Norway in Northern Europe including the Svalbard Archipelago Source: Maps Of World, 2017 Climatic Conditions in Svalbard The...

Environment

The Basic Possible Impacts of Climate Change in the Himalayas

Climate Change in the Himalayas is a major topic of worry for climate watchers in the Subcontinent and across the world. The Himalayas have the largest deposits of snow and ice in the world outside the Polar Regions and is often referred to as the ‘Third Pole’ and also as the ‘Water Tower of Asia’. Climate Change in the Himalayas: The Basic Possible Impacts The issue of Climate Change in the Himalayas is drawing forward many observations, with observations of warming in the Himalayas...

Environment

Climate Change and Marine Mammals in the Arctic

The effects of climate change are being felt in the Arctic more immediately and severely than in most other regions in the world. Even inferentially, the Arctic is warming at a rate that is two times that of the global average. The thing that is most visible and catches the world’s attention is the lessening of Arctic sea ice along with permafrost and the changing Arctic weather, leading to a rapid decline also in glacial ice in Greenland. However, climate change also affects Arctic marine mammals,...

Environment

Warming Trend | Antarctic Climate Change in the Last Fifty Years

Antarctic climate change is older than most would assume, and Antarctica did not always have the climatic features that it possesses now. Antarctica had been much warmer in its distant geological past, such that there are fossils to indicate that trees grew in Antarctica at various geological times. As expected, Antarctica was placed in different locations many millions of years ago and with the movement of tectonic plates, this played a significant part in influencing Antarctica’s climate in the distant...

Environment

CLIMATE CHANGE | The KoppenTrewartha Climate Classification System

Basics of the Koppen Trewartha Climate Classification System Wladimir Koppen developed the first quantitative classification system for the Earth’s climate in his first model in 1900 (Kottek et al., 2006). Since Koppen, many different climate classification models have been developed, but the Koppen climate classification system (Koppen, 1923, 1931, 1936) with various modifications to its original form remains the dominant climate classification model. In contemporary times, the most highly...

Environment

Black Carbon as an Important Climate Change Challenge

Black carbon is a substance responsible for up to 40 per cent of the effects of global warming till date (Philadelphia Tribune, 2017), most of it made up of soot. Black carbon is a form of particulate matter that can be airborne and can be suspended in the atmosphere and travel thus. When this particulate matter gets deposited on frozen surfaces such as in the Arctic or in Himalayan glaciers and snow, its high absorption of the Sun’s heat causes the frozen material to melt and liquefy. The US Environmental...