The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 has evolved into a fairly complex, multilayered governance regime (termed as the Antarctic Treaty System) with several compelling issues on its current agenda, including the effective implementation of 1991 Madrid Protocol and its annexes, regulation of tourism, biological prospecting and climate change. The transformed geopolitical context of Antarctic governance in terms of an increasingly diverse membership (with Malaysia and Pakistan having acceded to the Antarctic Treaty recently) as well as growing complexity of Antarctic policy advice, demand critical examination of both the changing nature and role of ‘Antarctic science’ and persisting knowledge-power asymmetries behind the ‘consensus’ based Antarctic science diplomacy. This chapter argues that the concept of ‘global knowledge commons’, as a strategic analytical tool, enables us to pay closer attention to normative-geopolitical interface of knowledge production in the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), especially at the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCMs). India should continue to aim at further democratization of Antarctic governance. This enterprise demands not only a serious and systematic pursuit of multidisciplinary scientific research and knowledge by India but also a proactive, meticulously worked out policy initiatives/interventions at the ATCMs.
The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) is a complex legal instrument that enlists measures in effect and its associated international instruments. Freedom of scientific research is enshrined in the Treaty and hence the ATS promotes free exchange of scientific information and mandates that observations from Antarctic must be made freely available.
Climate change, the most significant stress on the Arctic is likely to impact the entire world as climate systems are all intricately linked. The essay attempts to understand the legal mechanisms that are functioning in the region dealing with the many uncertainties in the wake of a warming trend.
An unbiased institutional body working as an overseer and comprising of a legislative organ to construct and modulate strong political frameworks and agendas that demand sustainable approach in the exploration and exploitation of the rare and precious resources of the Polar Region is the need of the hour.
The Ministry of Power, Government of India, launched the Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R-APDRP) in July 2008. Geographic information system (GIS) is an integral part of its implementation, intrinsically indicating that geospatial technologies are slated to soon become a way of life.
India promulgated the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification on 15 February 1991, which was subsequently amended several times. The latest change was made on 6 January 2011. Presented here are the highlights of the 2011 Regulation.
Environmental change is affecting food security, particularly for small farmers living on the margins. It is estimated that worldwide around 850 million people are chronically hungry and six million children presently die of hunger every year. Of the 800 million undernourished individuals worldwide, over 60 per cent are in Asia and 28 per cent in the African continent.
The developed and developing countries have differed on protocol and regulatory mechanisms of climate negotiations essentially because of varying geophysical specificities and countries’ strategies of economic development. The creation of an apex institution in sync with global consensus which can work out precise and transparent indices to assess the scale and effectiveness of adaptation/mitigation efforts for a more meaningful dialogue is suggested.
Created in the midst of the Cold War five decades ago, the Antarctic Treaty provided a mechanism for governing the region. In the following years, new issues such as fishing and tourism along with an expanded membership have transformed the politics of Antarctic and continue to provoke serious challenges to its governance.
As the demand for minerals grows, the huge revenues generated from it are too often fuelling conflicts and human rights violations, increasing poverty and undermining sustainable development. The new legislation the government is introducing must ensure transparency in allocation of mining concessions, and participation of, in consultation with, communities affected by mining projects.