Economy # Politics

Election Expenditure in India | Trends and Challenges

The last Lok Sabha election of 2014 was the most expensive election in the history of Indian democracy with a cost of Rs 3,426 crores incurred by the national exchequer. This represented an increase by 131 per cent over the expenses incurred in the 2009 Lok Sabha election; in the 2009 election, a cost of Rs 1,483 crores was incurred by the national exchequer (The Hindu, 2016). According to the Ministry of Law and Social Justice and the Election Commission of India, election expenditures in India...

Development # Economy

Ageing in India and Standard of Living

A country with a high standard of living and medical advancement should not bear an ageing burden. However, this might not be the case in India, with economic support for its ageing population becoming an important issue, and the absence of proper health insurance coverage and an inefficient public healthcare system creating bottlenecks in spite of considerable medical advancement. The ageing burden is particularly severe when it comes to elderly people of the low-income group who have to suffer...

Development

Rural Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India

There is a higher incidence of poverty in rural areas as compared to urban areas. This is testified by the Planning Commission’s estimate for 2011-12 that 25.7 per cent of the rural population was living below the poverty line (Rs 816 per capita per month for rural areas) while for urban areas the proportion was 13.7 per cent of the population being below the poverty line (Rs 1,000 per capita per month for urban areas). Thus while more than a tenth of the urban population was living below the urban...

Economy # Politics

International Agreements on the Environment and India

A profound fact of environmental protection and conservation is that the impacts of human-induced processes on the environment must be measured and the performance of the processes be assessed, policies be created on this basis and integrated into developmental processes and that the practice and implementation of these policies must be adequate. Most international agreements for the environment aim towards these objectives such that a process and discipline are present in the management and regulation...

Development

The Concept of the Demographic Dividend in India

A demographic dividend occurs when the rate of economic growth is increased due to a change in the age structure of a population that favours the presence of more working age people than that of a dependent population. A demographic dividend thus is the result of a changing age structure of the population. Basic Concepts A higher percentage of the working-age population can raise the economic output in a country as well as increase its per capita income. A high demographic dividend requires...

Development

The Effects of Globalization in India and Social Reform

Globalization is a progressing phenomenon marked by increasing interaction among people across the countries and between people and entities such as nation-states and corporations through the information and communication technologies (ICTs), international trade and culture and ideas. Globalization is propelled primarily by economic integration of the world economy. As in globalization in India as has been the case with many other countries, India has felt the effects of globalization through ensuing...

Development # Economy

A Comparative Study of Funding for Science in India

Although budgetary allocations have increased through the years, the overall share of research and development in India’s GDP has been hovering around 0.7 per cent on an average over the last few years.

Development

The Need for Cities in Regional Planning & Development in India

In the post-independence period, Indian cities had remained auxiliary to the concerns of balanced regional development. The city as a territorial unit in regional planning and development had largely not been the focus; the urban was neglected in favour of the rural by most national leaders at the time (Batra, 2009). With the recent introduction of smart cities, it can be seen that they are being thought of more comprehensively as planning units in order to build sustainability. The Need for Cities...

Development

Regional Disparities in India since Independence

During the British period in India, the policy orientation of the government in India was more so to protect the British economy than to look after the welfare of people in India, with law & order, tax collection and defence being the primary objectives. Although British modernized India with rail tracks, education, etc, the indigenous industry was largely ignored, producing a period of stagnation for India’s traditional economy. With no great increase in output or productivity, regional disparities...

Development # Economy

Has the Environment Retarded the Development Process

Although the development process is fuelled by the extraction of natural resources, environmental conservation and the development process, in particular economic development are frequently in opposition to each other. This led eventually to the Earth Summit in 1992 convened by the United Nations (UN) where the idea of sustainable development, or development that meets economic needs while conserving the environment, was promoted in the discussions. However, sustainable development in the present...