The ozone loss process in the stratosphere is relatively well understood and much of the loss is driven by the chemical cycles involving chlorine and bromine compounds, whose abundance peaked around 2000 in the polar stratosphere. With the abatement of atmospheric loading of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) due to the implementation of Montreal Protocol, the extent of ozone loss is expected to have decreased since 2000. Early signs of the rebound of Antarctic ozone have already been reported. However,...
Remote sensing and GIS can be used to generate data that can help achieve sustainable management of natural resources. Maps created through a GIS interface provide a fillip to analysis and bring us a step closer to visualising the complex patterns and relationships that characterise real-world planning and policy problems.
Indian Standard Time is the primary reference on which the country runs. However, keeping time is not the simplest of jobs. CSIR-NPL ensures that this time becomes accessible to all and everything runs proverbially, like clockwork.
One of the most successful methods for assuring accuracy of measurement in different laboratories and tracing the same to the national standards is through the use of certified reference materials. CSIR-NPL has developed Indian Certified Reference Materials—trademarked Bhartiya Nirdeshak Drvayas (BNDs).
Phytoplankton constitute the primary link in the food web of marine life and are a provider of oxygen. Satellite observations using remote sensing data has proved useful in identifying pockets of phytoplankton bloom, especially in the Southern Ocean.
Observational data on sea level rise, available since 1870, shows a constant rise. The multiple causes responsible for it have been traced to rising global temperatures, melting of land-based ice in all the Polar Regions, including Himalaya and the thermal expansion of ocean water etc.
Observations in Polar Regions are essential for understanding changing climate. This article provides insights into how a floating laboratory—the Polar Research Vessel, is designed and built to meet the mission requirements of scientific users.
The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE, 2015-2020) built on the legacy of the first IIOE-1 (1959-65) seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the Indian Ocean and allied scientific issues.
Oceans play a major role in the hydrological cycle, moderate the climate and act as the primary sink for carbon dioxide. The complex bathymetry of ocean beds, with long mountain ranges, mounds, volcanic craters and marine sediments, have been revealed by deep sea exploration.
With the development of a 12 km probabilistic weather forecasting model, an unprecedented improvement in forecasting systems has been made by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune. It is now possible to provide sufficient lead time for exogenous weather at district or sub-district level.