Magazine Articles # Science

Indian Standard Time

Indian Standard Time is the primary reference on which the country runs. However, keeping time is not the simplest of jobs. CSIR-NPL ensures that this time becomes accessible to all and everything runs proverbially, like clockwork.

Magazine Articles # Science

Indian Certified Reference Materials: Indispensable for the Quality Assurance of Products and Processes

One of the most successful methods for assuring accuracy of measurement in different laboratories and tracing the same to the national standards is through the use of certified reference materials. CSIR-NPL has developed Indian Certified Reference Materials—trademarked Bhartiya Nirdeshak Drvayas (BNDs).

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Phytoplankton Blooms in the Southern Ocean: Through Satellite Observations

Phytoplankton constitute the primary link in the food web of marine life and are a provider of oxygen. Satellite observations using remote sensing data has proved useful in identifying pockets of phytoplankton bloom, especially in the Southern Ocean.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Rising Global Sea Level: Where are we?

Observational data on sea level rise, available since 1870, shows a constant rise. The multiple causes responsible for it have been traced to rising global temperatures, melting of land-based ice in all the Polar Regions, including Himalaya and the thermal expansion of ocean water etc.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Designing Polar Research Vessels

Observations in Polar Regions are essential for understanding changing climate. This article provides insights into how a floating laboratory—the Polar Research Vessel, is designed and built to meet the mission requirements of scientific users.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

International Indian Ocean Expedition-2: A Basin-Wide Research Initiative

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE, 2015-2020) built on the legacy of the first IIOE-1 (1959-65) seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the Indian Ocean and allied scientific issues.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

The Oceans of the World

Oceans play a major role in the hydrological cycle, moderate the climate and act as the primary sink for carbon dioxide. The complex bathymetry of ocean beds, with long mountain ranges, mounds, volcanic craters and marine sediments, have been revealed by deep sea exploration.

Magazine Articles # Weather n Climate

Local Level Weather Forecasts

With the development of a 12 km probabilistic weather forecasting model, an unprecedented improvement in forecasting systems has been made by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune. It is now possible to provide sufficient lead time for exogenous weather at district or sub-district level.

Earth Science # Environment

Soil Erosion and Conservation in India

Soil erosion in India Excessive soil erosion in India combined with consequent high rate of sedimentation in reservoirs and decreased soil fertility has led to grave environmental problems. Soil erosion mostly affects practically all kinds of lands such as the forest lands, agricultural lands, arid and semi-arid lands, surface mines, roads, construction sites, coastal areas etc. Further, since soil formation is a very slow process, the erosion of the upper layer of the soil leaves it barren for a long...

Earth Science # Science

What is soil liquefaction? Causes, effects and measures

“A Phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a  liquid” is called Soil Liquefaction (Hazen,1918). There are two types of soil liquefaction. 1) Flow liquefaction 2) Cyclic Mobility  How does Soil Liquefaction Work: The soil is a mixture of soil particles that stay connected together. These particles...