Volcanic activities frequently occur along plate boundaries where pressure underneath the crust is released through cracks - pushing out magma and sometimes water and steam. The process of volcanism denotes eruption of molten rocks at the earth’s surface, often accompanied by rock fragments and explosive gases. Volcanism can take various forms, one being the creation of new crust along some 50,000 kms of ocean floor fissures where molten rock penetrates the surface and begins its divergent movement at the mid oceanic spreading ridges. In fact about 75 per cent of the world’s volcanoes are on the seafloor.
The jigsaw fit, one of the strongest evidences of Continental Drift Theory was propagated by A Wegener in 1912. Although remarked upon way back in 1620, with several scientists believing that the present day continents were the fragmented pieces of preexisting larger landmasses (supercontinents), it was only in the 1920s that the Theory gained prominence.
Earth’s crust is relatively lighter as compared to the denser mantle over which it lies and therefore behaves as if it is floating. Areas of the earth’s crust rise or subside to accommodate added load so that the forces that elevate landmasses balance the forces that depress them.
ICMAM is entrusted with the development of expertise in specialised areas relating to adoption of the concept of integrated coastal zone management to analyse problems prevalent along coastal marine areas and develop integrated management solutions.