Magazine Articles # Oceans

Phytoplankton Blooms in the Southern Ocean: Through Satellite Observations

Phytoplankton constitute the primary link in the food web of marine life and are a provider of oxygen. Satellite observations using remote sensing data has proved useful in identifying pockets of phytoplankton bloom, especially in the Southern Ocean.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Rising Global Sea Level: Where are we?

Observational data on sea level rise, available since 1870, shows a constant rise. The multiple causes responsible for it have been traced to rising global temperatures, melting of land-based ice in all the Polar Regions, including Himalaya and the thermal expansion of ocean water etc.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Designing Polar Research Vessels

Observations in Polar Regions are essential for understanding changing climate. This article provides insights into how a floating laboratory—the Polar Research Vessel, is designed and built to meet the mission requirements of scientific users.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

International Indian Ocean Expedition-2: A Basin-Wide Research Initiative

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE, 2015-2020) built on the legacy of the first IIOE-1 (1959-65) seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the Indian Ocean and allied scientific issues.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

The Oceans of the World

Oceans play a major role in the hydrological cycle, moderate the climate and act as the primary sink for carbon dioxide. The complex bathymetry of ocean beds, with long mountain ranges, mounds, volcanic craters and marine sediments, have been revealed by deep sea exploration.


What regulates our coastline: Coastal Regulation Zone Directives

Need for restrictions on Coastal Regulation Zone India has a vast coastline with nine states and four union territories having a sea-line running along their borders. Consequently, large populations of people are dependent on the sea for their livelihood. The scenic beauty of the sea and coastal formations also attract tourists in huge numbers. Minerals like salt, potassium, magnesium, sand and gravel, limestone and gypsum, manganese nodules, phosphorites , volcanic deposits of metals, placer deposits...

English Free Article # Oceans

Decoding Pelagic Deposits | Red Clay and Oozes under the Ocean

What are pelagic deposits? Ocean deposits usually consist of unconsolidated sediments, which can come from various sources, and are deposited at the ocean floor. Thickness of these  deposits vary greatly from one ocean to another (Fig.1). Ocean deposits can be differentiated on the basis of their composition, source, method of transit, and mode of distribution. Fig. 1: Total sediment thickness of World's Oceans and marginal seas Source: NOAA The components of ocean deposits can be transported...

English Free Article # Oceans

UNCLOS or Law of Sea Offers Cooperation for Sustainable Oceans

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is a comprehensive UN legal policy document demarcating areas of the sea under the jurisdiction of member states as well as legal clauses for human maritime activity in a comprehensive manner. The UNCLOS aims to demarcate and scrutinize the legal ramifications in the fullest possible scope of different jurisdictional and geographical areas of the sea as well as for human maritime activity. The sections for maritime zones that were defined...

English Free Article # Oceans

Sinkholes, a fascinating feature of Earth’s Karst Topography

The action of surface water and groundwater in the chemical weathering or chemical erosion of soluble carbonate rocks such as magnesium carbonates (dolomites) and calcium carbonates (limestone) produces landforms that are called karst topography. Geological features such as caves, sinkholes, underground rivers, barren and rocky ground and lack of surface water bodies are all results of the chemical processes of karst topography. The ontology of the term derives from its original reference to the Karst...

English Free Article # Oceans

Coral Bleaching and Clive Wilkinson Report

The coral bleaching phenomenon The beautiful coral reefs surrounded by blue tropical seas are not just coloured rocks but are thriving ecosystems with live corals that attach their skeletons to rocks and live there. The colours indicate the presence of single-celled algae-like zooxanthellae within their tissues that provide them with the essential nutrients through photosynthesis and in turn, the corals provide them with the required carbon dioxide and ammonium (NOAA, 2017) Even though reefs cover...