English Free Article # Oceans

Why are our oceans salty?

Why are our oceans salty? Ocean salinity, defined as the salt concentration in the seawater, is measured in unit of PSU (practical salinity unit), which is a unit based on the properties of seawater conductivity. It is equivalent to per thousand or (o/00) or to g/kg. The commonest way to record salinity is to measure the amount of salt in 1000g of water, so it is referred to as ‘parts per thousand’ or ppt. Most of the ocean has a salinity of between 34ppt and 36ppt. (www.goo.gl/4AvV6G) Global...

English Free Article # Oceans # Wildlife

The Olive Ridleys of Gahirmatha

Before you start presuming that we are referring to Mr. Riddle of Batman fame, let us quickly clarify that Olive Ridleys are poor green turtles, high on the endangered list, while Gahirmatha is this muddy beach beside a luxuriant patch of mangrove forest, along the coast of Odisha. Have you ever wondered about the many beautiful creatures that are lost forever in the onslaught of our ever-growing concrete jungles? Encased prettily in jars filled with liquid, creatures large and small will meaninglessly...

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Seafloor Spreading

The floors of sea are not one contiguous basin. It just like the world that you see, with valleys, plateaus and mountains, except that it is all covered with water. Moreover, there are areas in the sea floor that are more 'active' than the rest. These areas are prone to faulting, fracturing, volcanic activity and spreading. Sea floor spreading is a basic premise that helps postulate the theory of plate-tectonics. The first stage in plate separation is the initiation of a new pattern of convection...

English Free Article # Oceans # Pollution | VOL. 13, ISSUE 79, July-August 2013

Calculating Carbon Uptake by the Oceans

Nitrogen-15 is an isotope that is useful in determining how much of the anthropogenic carbon dumped in the atmosphere is taken up by the oceans. Our efforts in the Indian Ocean to determine this rate is outlined here.

English Free Article # Oceans | VOL. 12, ISSUE 75, November-December 2012

Islands of the World

Islands differ in their geological and geomorphologic settings; and in their physical, biological, climatic, social, political, cultural, and ethnic characteristics. Yet they share a distinct underlying concern that marks their overall vulnerability in the context of sustainable development.

Magazine Articles # Oceans | VOL. 12, ISSUE 70, January-February 2012

Fortunes under the Sea

Oceans hold precious resources buried in seabeds and continental shelves. Despite legislations and international bodies upholding the Law of the Seas, fear about restrain of rights has begun to grow in developing nations with technologically advanced countries leading exploitation activities.

Magazine Articles # Oceans | VOL. 11, ISSUE 69, November-December 2011

Beneath the Ocean Floor

From the late 1930s, new techniques have opened up in submarine geology. Gravity measurements and geotectonic imagery has allowed accurate mapping of the sea surface and the bottom structure. The ocean floor is marked by huge mountain ranges - the mid-oceanic ridges that form part of a global network, extending for more than 80,000 kilometres (Fig. 1). In places such as Iceland, Ascension and the Galapagos Islands - the ridges rise above sea level. The ocean floor is also cut by deep trenches which...

Magazine Articles # Oceans | VOL. 11, ISSUE 67, July-August 2011

Sea Farming: A New Model for Sustainable Livelihood in Coastal India

In India, there is an urgent need to enhance the earning capacity of the people living along the coastal areas. Sea farming through large scale seaweed cultivation is being considered as an alternate and additional means of livelihood.

Magazine Articles # Oceans | VOL. 11, ISSUE 67, July-August 2011

Frontier Science Climate Change and Marine

  The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) is a United Nations organisation specialising in ocean sciences. Listed here are some of the challenges that marine science needs to focus on in the coming years according to IOC. ● Global average temperature will increase by 2ºC - Research should be encouraged to evaluate the effects of extremely high sea surface temperatures on marine life, especially on the stability of some proteins. ● Stratification and oligotrophy - More...

Magazine Articles # Oceans | VOL. 11, ISSUE 67, July-August 2011

Nitrogen and the North East Arabian Sea

Nitrogen an essential macronutrient of the oceanic ecosystem, can limit the biological production if not available in a suitable form or concentration. This article looks at the role of nitrogen in the waters of the Arabian Sea.