By Saibal Dasgupta, Rajesh Kumar and Prakash Lakhchaura,
Forest Survey of India
The urban environment of modern India has undergone dramatic changes predominated by concrete structures, congested commercial spaces and incessant traffic. The degeneration of living environment in urban areas has severely disrupted the balance of urban climate as tree cover is eliminated to make way for ‘development’.
Between 1991 and 2011 urban population in India rose from 25.7 to 31.8 per cent as per the Census records. The annual urbanisation exponential growth rate of 2.76 per cent registered during 2001-2011 has in fact reversed the declining trend observed during 1981-91 and 1991-2001. Increase of 91.1 million persons to urban population during 2001-2011 is not only the highest registered thus far, it is also higher than the increase of 90 million persons to rural population. Faster urbanisation...