By S V S Phani Kumar, M V Ramana Murthy and M A Atmanand
The authors are Scientist E, Scientist F and Director, respectively at National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai. firstname.lastname@example.org
The mismatch between increasing demand and decline in water availability due to overexploitation and climate change is a critical issue for policy makers. Desalination, which is the conversion of seawater to potable water through various physical and chemical methods, has emerged as a potential solution to India’s looming water crisis. The most important concern however is cost effectivity of the methodology, type of energy used for desalination and sustainability of the plant.
Rapid urbanisation, population explosion and over exploitation of ground water resources are some of the reasons for the increasing freshwater demand in regions of the country. Coastal and island communities of the nation however, can eke potable water with the use of desalination technologies. Some of the common conventional desalination technologies are reverse osmosis (RO), multistage flashing and multi effect distillation. In RO water from a highly concentrated region is transferred to a region of low pressure. A semi-permeable membrane...