Disaster Education | VOL. 14, ISSUE 86, September-October 2014

Cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean

Tropical cyclones (TCs) actively form in different ocean basins of the globe and have different characteristics. Typhoons in the western North Pacific are most frequent in genesis, and the annual number of TCs beyond storm intensity in this basin is maximum as compared to other basins of the world. Most typhoons are generated from the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) or monsoon trough. Super or midget typhoons, typhoons with extra tropical transition and erratic track typhoons can often be found in this ocean basin. Most hurricanes in the north Atlantic develop from an easterly wave moving westward. On the other hand, TC genesis in the ocean around Australia in the southern hemisphere is closely related with the activity of the monsoonal shear line or the south Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ). This essay briefly discusses the characteristics of cyclones in the northern Indian Ocean (NIO). [caption id="attachment_1368" align="aligncenter" width="473"] Fig. 1: Potential damage accompanying tropical cyclones[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1369" align="aligncenter" width="563"] Fig. 2: The track of super cyclonic storm Gonu—May 31 to June 7, 2007[/caption]   Impact of cyclones A TC is a multi-hazard phenomenon, as it causes heavy rain culminating into floods, strong wind leading to structural damage, and storm surges resulting in coastal inundation (Fig. 1). In the BoB, storm surges can be much stronger than in other ocean basins. A higher increment of sea water...

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