Policy |

How Outside Actors Hold Sway within the Arctic Council: Benefits of cooperation and the problems when improving them

Introduction Inter-governmental cooperation in the Arctic has been developing and expanding into a wide range of circumpolar issues for more than 20 years (Koivurova and Vander Zwaag, 2007). Today, due to climate change consequences, including new opportunities for natural resources exploitation and increase in shipping activities, and geopolitical/globalisation processes (Heininen and Southcott, 2010) its premier institution—the Arctic Council (AC), established in 1996—is at the turning point as it undergoes important changes in the transformation process (Koivurova, 2009). Following Arctic states...

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