Temporary labour migration is a survival strategy of the rural poor in India—more prevalent in the country’s northern and eastern states. However, intra state differences exist with pockets of poverty even within prosperous states, from where socially and economically disadvantaged groups migrate. The phenomenon calls for effective social protection programmes to augment the inadequate livelihood opportunities and negligible access to health care for temporary labour migrants.
People move in and out of places every day and have done so throughout human history. This short essay outlines the pattern of migratory movement and reflects an ever changing India. About 29 per cent of India’s population are migrants, which impacts tahe cultural landscapes in ways that often lasts well beyond lifetimes.
Migration is probably a more important element in determining population structure and change in an area than fertility and mortality. Its study however poses many problems as the subject is prone to definition complexities especially in the global context.
Most research on female migrant employment concentrates on two female dominated sectors: domestic work (cleaning and care) and the sex industry. The presence of skilled women in migratory streams is often ignored. This paper presents some research on skilled migrant women and suggests that as with less skilled migrants, their movements too are shaped by family relations and social networks.
Traditionally the cost of ‘brain drain’ has been the financial loss of investment in education and the skill loss to the country when highly educated Indian workers migrated and settled abroad. Conversely, the primary benefits are seen to be the monetary remittances, the transfer of technology, and the return migration of those Indians further educated and experienced abroad. Consequently, the wheels of perception in India have moved from ‘brain drain’ of the 1960-70s to ‘brain bank’...
The rapid transformation of the economy, improvement in the levels of education, transport and communication facilities, shift of workforce from agriculture to industry and service activities have provided a new impetus to India’s mobility patterns.