By Tejbir Singh Rana
The author is Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Shivaji College, University of Delhi. firstname.lastname@example.org
In India, urbanisation is increasing at faster rate than necessary infrastructural development. Cities are populated beyond its capacity. Upgradation of Delhi NCR as a smart city may help in sustainable land-use and development.
Human evolution is followed by developmental activities that assimilate heterogeneous living conditions. During all stages of development and economic activity, the nature of human habitation (settlement) keeps pace with changes in human needs, technology and available resources. In the past as human populations evolved from a nomadic life to cultivation of farmlands and permanent settlements, villages came up in close proximity to cultivated farmlands. The size and nature of every rural settlement was determined by the carrying capacity of farmlands and the application of available technology in keeping with the topography of the respective region. When the industrial revolution altered the nature of human occupations from primary to manufacturing, mass production altered the intra-village dependency man had hitherto been accustomed to, through large-scale trade, transport and services into inter-state and inter-regional dependency. The gradual change in the nature of human occupation from agricultural to non-agricultural manufacturing activities also saw urban...