Elephants are today endangered due to fragmentation of habitat, reduction of forest cover, and the hostility of local communities to wildlife. A holistic approach to conservation is the best solution to benefit all concerned. Elephants are probably the only species that come into such serious conflict with people when their habitat is destroyed. Severe widespread HEC is an index of failure to protect forest cover or reverse their fragmentation and degradation. On an average nearly 400 people are killed annually by elephants and about 100 elephants are killed by people in retaliation (ENVIS, 2016). Elephants annually damage 0.8 to 1 million hectares of land (ibid).
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