English Free Article # Oceans

Decoding Pelagic Deposits | Red Clay and Oozes under the Ocean

What are pelagic deposits? Ocean deposits usually consist of unconsolidated sediments, which can come from various sources, and are deposited at the ocean floor. Thickness of these  deposits vary greatly from one ocean to another (Fig.1). Ocean deposits can be differentiated on the basis of their composition, source, method of transit, and mode of distribution. Fig. 1: Total sediment thickness of World's Oceans and marginal seas Source: NOAA The components of ocean deposits can be transported...

English Free Article # Oceans

UNCLOS or Law of Sea Offers Cooperation for Sustainable Oceans

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is a comprehensive UN legal policy document demarcating areas of the sea under the jurisdiction of member states as well as legal clauses for human maritime activity in a comprehensive manner. The UNCLOS aims to demarcate and scrutinize the legal ramifications in the fullest possible scope of different jurisdictional and geographical areas of the sea as well as for human maritime activity. The sections for maritime zones that were defined...

English Free Article # Oceans

Sinkholes, a fascinating feature of Earth’s Karst Topography

The action of surface water and groundwater in the chemical weathering or chemical erosion of soluble carbonate rocks such as magnesium carbonates (dolomites) and calcium carbonates (limestone) produces landforms that are called karst topography. Geological features such as caves, sinkholes, underground rivers, barren and rocky ground and lack of surface water bodies are all results of the chemical processes of karst topography. The ontology of the term derives from its original reference to the Karst...

English Free Article # Oceans

Coral Bleaching and Clive Wilkinson Report

The coral bleaching phenomenon The beautiful coral reefs surrounded by blue tropical seas are not just coloured rocks but are thriving ecosystems with live corals that attach their skeletons to rocks and live there. The colours indicate the presence of single-celled algae-like zooxanthellae within their tissues that provide them with the essential nutrients through photosynthesis and in turn, the corals provide them with the required carbon dioxide and ammonium (NOAA, 2017) Even though reefs cover...

English Free Article # Oceans

Astounding Biodiversity around Deep Sea Vents

Deep sea vents or hydrothermal vents are fissures at the sea floor out of which flows out a stream of mineral and gas-rich geothermally heated seawater. Deep sea vents are a result of sea floor spreading and are mostly found in ocean ridges. https://www.geographyandyou.com/science/beneath-ocean-ridge/ They are formed by the heating up of sea water that permeates the spreading sea floor by volcanic activity (United Nations, 2017) i.e. by contact with the molten crust. The super-hot lava that permeates...

English Free Article # Oceans # Science

Exclusive Economic Zone as opposed to Fishery Zone

According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), an international agreement in force since 1994 regarding international activity in the world’s oceans, Article 55 of the document defines the legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The article defines an area of ocean marked as an Exclusive Economic Zone (or EEZ) as – “The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part,...

English Free Article # Oceans # Science

Exploring Regulations to Check Saline Water Ingression in India

For people living in coastal areas rivers and lakes are not ubiquitously available. They thus depend on groundwater for their needs, which leads to probabilities of saline water ingression. Groundwater close to the coast can be easily laden with salt, especially when the equilibrium between coastal aquifers and sea water is disturbed. https://www.geographyandyou.com/climate-change/water/groundwater-sustainable-irrigation/ N.C. Mondal, V.P. Singh, V.S. Singh and V.K. Saxena in their paper titled...

English Free Article # Oceans # Science

Lagoons – Losing India’s rich biodiversity zones

Lagoons are generally divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. However, there is ambiguity over the distinction between an estuary and a lagoon. For this purpose the definitions given by Cameron and Pritchard (1963) are the most commonly accepted definitions. While an estuary is an inland river valley or coastal plain inundated by sea water during the Holocene sea-level rise, with tidal waves as a feature, coastal lagoons are different. Coastal lagoons have as their distinctive feature separation...

Oceans # Science

The Sargasso Sea – a unique ecosystem protected by seaweed

Located in the area marked under the fabled ‘Bermuda Triangle’, the Sargasso Sea located within the North Atlantic Ocean is the only sea in the world that does not have a land boundary. Unlike other seas, its location is defined using ocean currents. It lies within a large system of rotating ocean currents called the Northern Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. By compass directions, the Sargasso Sea’s western limit is marked by the Gulf Stream, the eastern by the Canary Current, the northern by the North...

English Free Article # Oceans # Science

Beneath the Ocean Floor | Discovery of Ocean Ridge

Exciting discoveries have come from an international drilling project, the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Since 1968, a drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, has drilled nearly a thousand holes into the deep ocean basins, taking samples of deep-sea sediment and crust. One early discovery suggests that the Mediterranean dried up completely between 5 and 12 million years ago, leaving thick beds of sun-baked salts as evidence buried in today’s ocean floor.