Constitutional mandates make the Indian state the guardian of the environment.
Through various environmental laws and norms, industries are to be strictly
regulated to ensure that people can enjoy the basic rights to a clean environment. In
an ideal situation, industries would provide for the growth of the economy and
generate employment, while the State would oversee the conditions of operation so
the environment is not harmed. However, for a long time, both State and industries
have colluded to bypass the norms that are meant to protect the environment. The
culmination of this has been in the form of extreme degradation of environment,
escalated agitation and loss of human lives.