Global Warming and Indian Monsoon


Vol NO: VOL. 12, ISSUE 75

"It has been observed since 1979 that there is a heterogeneous increase in the tropospheric temperature across the globe. The rise in tropospheric temperature over selected climatic zones during the period 1949-1978 is as follows - the equator +0.45°C, the north polar +0.60°C, the north subtropic +0.32°C, the south subtropic +0.77°C and the south polar region +0.66°C, recording a higher increase in the polar regions as compared to the equator. Consequently, a decrease in the tropospheric temperature gradient from equator to poles is also observed causing a weakening of the general atmospheric circulation. Further, there is a decrease in the boreal summer tropospheric temperature gradient in Tibet causing weakening of the Asia-India monsoon circulation and all-India monsoon rainfall, which during the 1999-2012 has reduced by 6.1 per cent (857mm) compared to the period 1949-1998 (913mm). Monitoring Global Warming The difference in the 12 month mean of the tropospheric temperature between equator and the different climatic zones has indicated a general decline in the thermal contrast from mid-1970s and more sharply in recent decades (Fig 1) – the highest being between the equator and south polar region

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    Nityanand Singh and H N Singh

    The authors are Scientist F, Climatology and Hydrometeorology Division and Scientist C, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, respectively.

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