English Free Article # Environment |

The Koppen Climate Classification System

The Koppen climate classification system is a widely-utilized vegetation-based climate classification system that was created by the German botanist and climatologist Wladimir Koppen. The Koppen climate classification system is an attempt to come up with a formula to delineate climatic boundaries in correspondence with vegetation zones or biomes across the globe. These biomes were in the process of being formulated and mapped for the first time during the time Koppen formulated his climate classification...

English Free Article # Environment |

Why Environmentalists Fear Increase in Nuclear Energy Production

The Science of Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy represents the energy released during a chain reaction in a nuclear reactor. The process involved in this is called nuclear fission of nuclear fuel, usually uranium, in the reactor. In power plants run using fossil fuel, coal, oil or natural gas is burned to produce heat. Heat is generated in a nuclear reaction however, by the splitting of atoms in a process called nuclear fission. The splitting of the nuclear fuel nuclei during nuclear fission releases...

Earth Science # English Free Article |

Lake Vostok of Antarctica | What does it really reveal

Covering a total area of about 10,000 sq km, Lake Vostok in Antarctica is one of the largest sub-glacial lakes in the world. Lake Vostok in Antarctica is buried under greater than about 3.7 km of ice and is located near the Vostok research station run by Russia. Lake Vostok in Antarctica was once a large surface lake in eastern Antarctica that is now covered by a layer of ice about 3.7 km deep. Covered by a layer of ice for a millennia, Lake Vostok in Antarctica provides one of Earth’s most...

English Free Article # Tribes |

Protecting Forest Dwellers as an Essential Part of Indian Forests

In February 2002, the Supreme Court of India passed an order prohibiting state governments and also tribals and other traditional forest dwellers from removing dead, dying trees and grasses and trees felled by winds. This was followed by a handbook being distributed by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change  (MoEF&CC) prohibiting tribals and other forest dwellers from utilizing forest produce for their livelihood needs. In 2004, a Central Empowered Committee (CEC) was appointed...

English Free Article # Forests |

Canopy Layers in Abundant Arboreal Forest Habitats

Forests are habitats where trees are usually the main form of vegetation, and can occur in many regions and climates. Forests can occur as tropical rainforests, temperate forests, boreal forests, and so on, and can form vertical layers of vegetation, an example of which is canopy layers, commonly known as forest canopies. https://www.geographyandyou.com/climate-change/forests/forest-day/ Vertical Forest Layers The species composition of a forest is unique to it, and while some forests can have...

English Free Article # Weather n Climate |

World Ozone Day Marks the thirtieth anniversary of Montreal Protocol

September 16 is celebrated as World Ozone Day every year . World Ozone day 2017 is special as it marks the 30th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol. The UN’s Ozone Secretariat launched into a communication campaign ahead of World Ozone Day 2017. #OzoneHeroes was launched on September 14th in a bid to create awareness of the major achievements of the Montreal Protocol in its efforts to preserve the ozone layer and protect the world’s climate. The UN’s Ozone Secretariat aims to highlight...

English Free Article # Technology |

ISRO Satellite Launch Failure After Thirty Nine Successful Ones

Reasons for launch failure ISRO’s satellite IRNSS-1H’s launch on August 31, 2017 was declared unsuccessful. A S Kiran Kumar, Chairman, ISRO is reported to have said that the cause can be attributed to a failure of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle’s (PSLV’s) protective heat shield in separating and dropping off at the scheduled juncture. A heat shield is part of the PSLV whose function is to protect against the extreme friction generated heat with the Earth’s atmosphere during its lift-off....

English Free Article # Oceans |

Decoding Pelagic Deposits | Red Clay and Oozes under the Ocean

What are pelagic deposits? Ocean deposits usually consist of unconsolidated sediments, which can come from various sources, and are deposited at the ocean floor. Thickness of these  deposits vary greatly from one ocean to another (Fig.1). Ocean deposits can be differentiated on the basis of their composition, source, method of transit, and mode of distribution. Fig. 1: Total sediment thickness of World's Oceans and marginal seas Source: NOAA The components of ocean deposits can be transported...

English Free Article # Environment |

The Albedo Effect and the Reflectance of Solar Heat

A measure of the reflectivity of a surface is called albedo, and when applied in Earth-sciences, albedo is a measure of the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface in relation to Sun’s energy. When some of the Sun’s energy is reflected back into space by surfaces on Earth, it has an overall cooling effect on the Earth (G.P. Wayne, 2016). This phenomenon is called the albedo effect. High albedo of a surface implies that the surface reflects a lot of light, and low albedo implies that it absorbs...

English Free Article # Science Bytes |

Hurricane Irma I Triple Hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin

Hurricane Irma The eye of hurricane IRMA passed over Bermuda at around 1.47 am (5.47 am BST). Heavy rain and howling winds raked the neighbouring island of Antigua, sending debris flying as people huddled in their homes or government shelters (BST- British Summer Standard Time). https://www.geographyandyou.com/science/weather-and-climate/hurricane-harvey-case-climate-change/ The hurricane was so strong that it appeared on seismometers, which are designed to measure earthquakes, and has the potential...