Climate Change # Water

The Study of River Morphology

River morphology is a scientific field that concerns with changes in river forms in plan and cross-sections that result because of erosion and sedimentation processes. The principal elements are the dynamics of sediment transport and river flow. Studies on the river morphology provide important information required for the management of water resources, constructions along the river banks and in mitigating hazards such as floods, etc (Sarkar, 2016). Approaches to Studies on River Morphology in India India...

Climate Change # Water

The Concept of Environmental Flow and Sustainability

Minimum ecological flow is based on the principle that a certain amount of minimum flow must be present in a flowing freshwater ecosystem such as a river or an estuary so that the ecological quality of the flowing freshwater ecosystem is maintained. The term minimum ecological flow is also used sometimes, in association with the term environmental flow that denotes the amount of water running in a flowing freshwater body that can keep the water body at a desirable environmental condition. The Concept...


Systems for the Classification of Natural Vegetation

As far as the classification of natural vegetation is concerned, it has been a constantly evolving field over the years. The classification of natural vegetation helps in forming an inventory of local vegetation and its monitoring. Classifying natural vegetation also assists in the management of programmes for natural conservation, managing land and natural resource use and in documenting individual species. Many a time, endangered habitats can be identified while classifying natural vegetation. The...

Climate Change # Environment

How earth’s albedo effects global warming: can geoengineering help?

Definition Albedo is the measure of reflectivity of an object. A scientific definition describes albedo as “the fraction of the total incident solar radiation reflected by a planet back to space that is a measure of the planet's energy balance”. Every object has a different albedo. The objects with higher albedo are cooler in temperature than the objects that have a lower albedo.  It is either measured on a scale of zero to one or as a percentage. An object that has zero albedo reflects zero...

Climate Change

Foraminifera Fossils Indicate Sea Level Change in Lothal

Foraminifera are sea organisms which have been widely used in palaeoceanography. The organisms indicate sea level changes and have played a significant role in identifying the oldest dockyard at Lothal in Gujarat.

Climate Change

Geopolitics of the Poles in the Anthropocene Age

We need to realise that climate change under the Anthropocene, the present era of human civilization, may have long ranging impacts on the two Polar regions and therefore make some essential policy changes accordingly.

Climate Change

Climate Change and the Glacial Realms

The cryosphere acts as sensitive thermometers recording the fluctuations in the climate. The Antarctic, the Arctic and the Himalaya are all showing signs of increasing ice mass loss on a decadal scale as a consequence of average rise of 0.8 oC in global temperatures since 1880 (IPCC, 2013). The meteorological observatories in the Arctic, the Antarctic and Tibet—demonstrate a rise in temperature over the last three decades.


Biodiversity in India

The United Nations’ (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biodiversity or ‘biological diversity’ as “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” (UN, 2018). Dr. C. R. Babu, a senior Environmental Scientist at Delhi University, defines biodiversity as, “All...


Biodiversity as Conservation | Threats & Conservation Efforts

Thomas Lovejoy in 1980 coined the term ‘Biological Diversity’ which was later modified by E. O. Wilson in 1986 who coined the term ‘Biodiversity’ in his report for the first American Forum on Biological Diversity. As a term intimately related to environmental and wildlife conservation, although the popularity of the term has increased dramatically since then in the West, especially in the scientific community in the West as well as globally, biodiversity as conservation is still not an everyday...


Very Severe Cyclonic Storm OCKHI

A trough of low at mean sea level lay over southwest Bay of Bengal & adjoining Sri Lanka coast on 27th November, it was seen as a low pressure area over southwest Bay of Bengal and adjoining areas of southern Sri Lanka & equatorial Indian Ocean on 28th, as a well marked low pressure area over southwest Bay of Bengal and adjoining equatorial Indian Ocean and Sri Lanka at 0530 hours IST of 29th November and concentrated into a depression over southwest Bay of Bengal off the Sri Lankan coast....